The “Big Three” and the “Big Five”
Together with Professor Olivia Mitchell, I developed a set of questions to measure financial literacy. They have been used worldwide, including in the U.S. National Financial Capability Study.
Financial Literacy Around the World (FLAT World)
In 2004, the “Big Three” questions, created by Professor Olivia Mitchell and me, were first fielded in the U.S. Health and Retirement Study. Since then, the exact questions and various variations have been used to measure financial literacy around the world.
S&P Global Financial Literacy Survey
The Standard & Poor’s Ratings Services Global Financial Literacy Survey is the world’s largest, most comprehensive global measurement of financial literacy.
PISA Financial Literacy Assessment
I lead the group of experts who designed the PISA financial literacy assessment, measuring financial knowledge and skills among 15-year olds around the world.